PiRoCon Robotics Controller for Raspberry Pi – Assembling

PiRoCon Robotics Controller Kit

 

Features

The PiRoCon is a controller board for motorised robots. It plugs directly on top of a Raspberry Pi and can be firmly attached using the included pillar and screws (Rev B Pi only). It is designed specifically to drive the 4tronix Initio robot, but it is flexible enough to be used with many different types of robot. Scratch software support is provided by the excellent Scratch GPIO Handler from @cymplecy – Version 4 or later required.

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Click on any image to enlarge

The PiRoCon Robotics Controller board includes:

  1. 5V regulated power supply for the Pi, the board itself and any attached peripherals
  2. All 8 un-allocated GPIO pins brought out to 3-way headers with power, ground & signal for sensors, etc.
  3. All of these GPIO include bidirectional, 5V – 3V3 level-shifters
  4. 2 of these pins can be used to drive standard servos (used on Initio to control the Pan/Tilt mechanism)
  5. Level-shifters can be removed, or allocated to different pins by removing jumpers and replacing with jumper wire
  6. A dual H-Bridge is included, connected to to bi-directional PWM controlled motors on screw terminals
  7. The H-Bridge is connected by default to pins 19, 21, 24 and 26, but can be changed
  8. A 4-pin connector for the cheap HC-SR04 Ultrasonic range sensor. This is fed, via a resistor network, to a single pin which is jumper selectable between pins 8 or 23
  9. SPI female header for the SPI pins
  10. I2C/UART header for the I2C and UART signals
  11. Red LED for 5V, Yellow LED for 3V3
  12. Connectors to allow plugging on the Adafruit 16-Channel Servo/PWM Driver using PCA9685 chip. This optional add-on allows PWM control of up to 16 additional servos, or brightness control of 16 LEDs, etc. You can even use 2 of these hardware PWM pins to control the dual H-Bridge using 3 pin mode (where 2 pins control motor direction and the 3rd PWM pin controls speed)

And here is a brief comparison between the PiRoCon and the MicRoCon (his baby sister)

Comparison

Check you have all the parts

The PiRoCon is delivered as a kit with the following parts. We also offer a soldering service should you want us to solder it for you

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  1. PCB
  2. All surface mount components are ready-assembled
  3. 3 off 6-pin female headers
  4. 1 off 8-pin female header
  5. 1 off 26-pin GPIO header
  6. 1 off 3×8 male header
  7. 2 off 2×4 male headers
  8. 12 off 0.1″ jumpers
  9. 2 off resistor networks
  10. 4 off 100nF ceramic capacitors
  11. 2 off 47µF electrolytic capacitors
  12. L4940V5 low drop-out 5V voltage regulator
  13. L293D dual H-Bridge motor driver
  14. 3 off 2-pin screw terminals
  15. DC Jack socket
  16. 10mm hex pillar with 2 screws and 1mm thick washer (total 11mm required between boards)
  17. Heatsink with mounting screw and nut

 

Assembling Process

Starting Soldering

If you haven’t soldered before, you might want to check out this instructable. I find that the following order of soldering works best, starting with the lowest profile components and moving to the highest. This allows me to place the components through the holes in the PCB, then turn the PCB over onto the desk surface and gravity will hold the components in place. You can also use Blutack to hold the components in place while you solder

 

1. Add the L293D Motor Controller Chip

Make sure that pin 1, marked by the little black round indentation and the U-shaped cutout of the chip, is at the edge of the board as shown below

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2. Add the 100nF Capacitors C2, C3, C5 and C6

These are small, yellow and marked 104. It doesn’t matter which way round they are put in, but it is neatest if they point the same way. They fit into positions marked C2, C3, C5 and C6

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3. Solder across the Motor control pin selections

There are 4 solder bridges to be made. These lie between pin 1 of the L293D chip and capacitor C6. Make sure these are cleanly bridged with no solder traces shorting anything out. If you want to change the pins used to control the motors, then you should remove the solder bridges and connect them to the pins of your choice.

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4. Add the Resistor networks RN1 and RN2

These are long and orange. They are polarised and must be connected the correct way round or the level shifters will not work. There is writing on one side only – this writing should be away from the L293D. The dot at one end is pin 1 and this should be in the square at the end of the silk screen markings

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5. Solder 2-Pin screw terminals

These are for the motor connections (Motor A and Motor B), and for the alternative source of power for the motor driver – Vin. Make sure you fit them with the screw terminals facing outwards

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6. Add the Male header blocks: 8×2 and 8×3

The 8×2 header block is actually made from 2 of the 4×2 headers

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7. Add the Male single row headers

There are five of these individual single row headers and are probably the trickiest items on this board to solder neatly:

  • The 2-pin header is used for the 3.3V near the GPIO header positon
  • One of the 4-pin headers is used for motor enables. The purpose of these is so that you can connect the enable pins for each motor output to a PWM pin as this is the better way to control motors, rather than use PWM on one of the drive pins. The reasoning is fairly esoteric and really makes little difference in practice. But as with many things on the PiRoCon, we provide the option for the customer to experiment
  • The other 4-pin header is to connect a 4-pin ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 directly. All signal condition and converting to single pin operation is provided on the PiRoCon board
  • One 3-pin header is used to select which GPIO pin is used for the ultrasonic sensor: Pin 8 or 23
  • The other 3-pin header is next to the Vin terminal and used to select whether the battery voltage (VBat) or the screw terminal input voltage Vin is used to power the motors. If you want to power the Raspberry Pi yourself and not use the onboard regulator, you can simply change this jumper to connect to Vin and not use the DC jack battery input

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8. Add the Female headers JP5..JP8

There are 4 female headers; 3 are 6-pin and 1 is 8-pin

  • JP5 and JP6 (both 6-pin) are used for the I2C expansion port. You can plug Adafruit’s 16-channel PWM board directly in here. Also the 4tronix ADC/DAC board and other boards are planned for the future
  • JP7 (6-pin) is the general purpose I2C expansion that also carries the RXD and TXD serial pins
  • JP8 (8-pin) contains the SPI pins
  • All 4 headers have 5V, 3.3V and Gnd available

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9. Solder the voltage regulator

The L4940V5 is a low dropout regulator that will work happily down to a 6V input and so can be used with 4 AA alkaline cells up to 6-cells of rechargeable NiMH. Solder it in vertically with the legs as far through the board as they will go, then bend it over backwards and you should find that the hole in teh regulator lines up with the hole in the board. If not it can be moved around a mm or so

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10. Add the 47uF Capacitors C1 and C4

These are polarised and must be placed the correct way or magic smoke will appear. The long lead is positive and should be placed in the hole marked with a ‘+’ on the PCB. The casing has a grey band with down arrows next to the negative pin

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11. Add the DC Jack

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12. Solder the GPIO connector to the Bottom of the board

Make sure you solder this to the correct side of the board!

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13. Fit the heatsink to the regulator

You will need to push the heatsink onto the regulator then adjust its position so the holes in PCB, regulator and heatsink line up. I find that poking a small screwdriver through the holes allows me to move around the components until the line up correctly. Then push the M3 nut inside the heatsink and screw in the M3 screw from teh bottom of the board

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14. Attach the 12 Blue jumpers

These are used for various selections: ultrasonic pin, motor voltage input, motor enables (2) and level shifter selection (8)

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15. Attach the Mounting spacer and fix to your Raspberry Pi (Rev B only)

To give a robust mounting of the PiRoCon onto the Raspberry Pi, we provide a metal spacing pillar 10mm and a 1mm thick washer. The spacing between the Pi and the board should be 11mm with this type of GPIO header, so both the metal spacer and the nylon washer should be used as shown below. If there is already a screw holding the Raspberry Pi to a case or similar, then you can remove the nylon washer to give the correct spacing for it to rest on top of the existing screw head

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16. Download code from our GitHub

  • MotorTestB.sb Allows control of the motors using arrow keys (ScratchGPIO)
  • PanTiltTest.sb Allows moving the pan/tilt assembly using arrow keys (ScratchGPIO)
  • UltraSonicTest.sb Shows operation of the UltraSonic sensor (ScartchGPIO)
  • TrackerTest.sb Uses the ultrasonic sensor on a Pan/Tilt assembly to follow (ScratchGPIO)
  • Avoider.sb Uses IR obstacle sensors and motors to avoid objects (ScratchGPIO)
  • InitioTest.sb Uses line sensors, obstacles sensors and motors (ScartchGPIO)
  • motors.py Python program to show motor operation

>> Wiring & Usage

 

#FreePiStuff – Sensor Shield

#FreePiStuff No.1

Pi-Sense 0.3 Prototype Kit

** THIS OFFER IS NOW CLOSED ***

What is it?

This a proto-type version of the upcoming 4tronix PiRoCon robotic controller board – which will be very different from this board (this one doesn’t include motor drivers for a start). This was the first design committed to a PCB, so a few mods are on the board but they do the job intended very well. Would seem a shame to let them go to waste, so I’d like them to be used.

This prototype kit features:

  1. 5V regulated power supply for the Pi, the board itself and any attached peripherals
  2. All 8 un-allocated GPIO pins brought out to 3-way headers with power, ground & signal
  3. 4 of these GPIO include bidirectional, 5V-3V3 level-shifters
  4. Level-shifters can be removed, or allocated to different pins by removing jumpers and replacing with jumper wire
  5. SPI female header for the SPI pins
  6. I2C/UART header for the obvious!
  7. Red LED for 5V, Yellow LED for 3V3
  8. Connectors to allow plugging on the Adafruit 16-Channel Servo/PWM Driver using PCA9685 chip (as shown in the photo above.

PCA9685-Fitted

What do I get for Free?

You will receive a prototype PCB with some mods on. All the surface mount components are ready-fitted, together with the 8, 3-way header pins (as the mods are on the back of these).

Loose components included for you to solder and complete the kit are:

  • 26-pin GPIO header
  • 2 x 100nF capacitors
  • 2 x 10K resistor networks
  • DC Jack socket
  • L4940V5 regulator
  • 8-pin female header
  • 3 x 6-pin female headers
  • 4×2 male header block
  • 3×1 male header
  • 2-pin screw terminal
  • 5 x 0.1” jumpers
  • Metal hex spacer and screws to mount the board to the Pi (not shown)

Full-Pack

 

What don’t I get for Free?

You won’t get:

  • Any guarantee
  • Postage outside UK (£3.90 for standard airmail, £10.02 for registered)
  • DC Plug to plug into the jack socket
  • Adafruit PCA9685 board – see www.ebay.co.uk/itm/161107058694

 

OK Sounds Good – How do I build it?

There’s no particular order, and whichever order you choose, you will end up wishing that a certain component wasn’t there when you are adding another. This is my preferred order:

  1. Solder the small orange 100nF capacitors C1 and C2. It doesn’t matter which way round
  2. Solder the 2 yellow resistor networks. You need to get these in the right holes and the right way round
    1. For the correct holes, see the photo
    2. The writing needs to be to the top of the board (nearest the 4×3 connectors)
    3. Insert the 6-way and 8-way female headers, turn the board upside down to rest on the headers to keep them straight, then solder 1-pin only on each header
    4. Check that the headers are sitting straight. Adjust if necessary, then solder the rest of the pins
    5. Add in the 4x2and the 3×1 male header blocks. Again solder one pin on each, check it is sitting straight, then solder the remaining pins
    6. Solder the 2-pin connector if required
    7. Solder the L4940V regulator. Do this by putting it in vertically as far is it fits easily and solder it in this position. When soldered, simply bend it backwards into the position shown in the photo. Make sure the Red modification wire is still attached to the pin underneath
    8. Fit the DC Jack socket – big holes so lots of solder to keep it nice and sturdy
    9. Fit the GPIO socket. I know it’s obvious but fit this on the opposite side of the board to everything else!

Complete

 

How do I test it?

Carefully! We don’t want a blown Pi. I have been doing the following:

  1. Give it a careful check for solder shorts, stray bits of wire, etc
  2. Don’t connect the jumpers at this point
  3. Plug a battery pack (6.5V – 10V) into the DC jack socket and check the 5V LED comes on
  4. Remove the battery pack
  5. Plug the board, without external power, onto a Pi and power up the Pi (no need for an SD card at this stage), and check that both the 5V and 3V3 LEDs light up
  6. Check you have the correct voltages on the middle pins of the two 4×3 header blocks (3V3 on the left block and 5V on the right block)

 

How do I use it?

Use the rough sketch below to identify the locations of all headers. Due to the slight unexpected feature (bug), the silk screen is wrong for the 3-pin headers. The sketch below is correct:

  • Pins on the GPIO socket numbered 11, 12, 13, 14 are brought directly on the header
  • Pins 7, 22, 16, 18 are passed through 4 jumpers (level shift selectors) and then through the bidirectional level shifters . Leave all 4 jumpers in place if you want these 4 signals to be level shifted. Remove any jumper that you don’t want level shifting and you can use the exposed male header pin to access that signal, or use the opposite pin to feed any other signal through the level shifters. Is that clear? No, I thought not.
  • On the SPI header, the 8th pin marked 5V on silk screen is not connected
  • If you add in the PCA9685 board, you should build it with 2 male headers on the bottom of the board. Then it can be plugged directly into the female headers provided
  • The “Servo power select” jumper allows you to select the power for the servos on the PCA9685 board. Vin is the direct power from the 2-pin screw terminal. “Battery” is actually the 5V line which is common for the Pi and the board. This is fine to use for small servos or perhaps 1 or 2 larger servos if the batteries are in use. Use the external screw terminal power if more or larger servos are in use
  • Demos of board in use with a customer here: http://youtu.be/SKDD_sO2Rs4 and http://youtu.be/TS5DAGg9MJ4

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Click to enlarge

 

How do I Get one then?

Well, first off, there’s only 5 available. We’ll allocate on a first come, first served basis.

Send an email with #FreePiStuff in the title, including your name and postal address, to sales@4tronix.co.uk